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Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Trustees, Southern Illinois University"

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Made Oct. 1, 1876, 






THOMAS S. RIDGWAY, of Shawneetown. 
Term expired Sept. 30, 1876. Re-appointed. 

LEWIS M. PHILLIPS, of Nashville. 
Term expires Sept. 30, 1878. 

JACOB W. WILKIN, of Marsliall. 
Term expires Sept. 30, 1878. 

n JAMES ROBARTS, of Carbondale. 

Term expires Sept. P>0, 1880. 


EDWIN S. RUSSELL, of Mt. Carmel. 
Term expires Sept. 30, 1880. 


THOMAS S. RIDGWAY, President. 
JAMES ROBARTS, Secretary. 

F A C U L T Y 


Principal and Teacher of MentaLScience, Ethics and Pedagogy 


Teacher of Natural History and Curator of Museum. 


Teacher of Languages and Literature. 


Teacher of Hio'her Matlieniatics. 


Teacher of Arithmetic and Astronomy. 

Teacher of Physics and Chemistry, and Lecturer on Chemistry. 


Teacher of Elocution, Music and Calisthenics. 

Teacher of Physiology, History and Geography, and Libraiau 


Teacher of Grammar and Book-keeijing. 


Teacher of Drawing, Penmanship, German and French. 

Teacher of Primary Department. 


To }{(-■< Knrl/cnci/, .John L. })E\'EHII)(;e, Ocvernor of t lie Stale of Illinois: 

Sik: — The TriLstees of the Southern Illinois Normal University 
have the honor to transmit to 3'ou their second biennial report, em- 
bracing the time from December 1, 1874. to September 30, 1870, in- 

At the time of making our first report, the university had not com- 
pleted the first regular (juarterly session, or term. There were then 
enrolled one hundred and fortj'-seven scholars in all the departments. 
A faculty of instruction and government had then just been elected 
and were working harmoniously together. The students were re- 
ported as orderly and remarkably enthusiastic and progressive. Every 
indication was favorable and our hearts were delighted wdth the flat- 
tering prospects before the university. Happily we have not been 
disappointed in any material respect. 1/nion has continued to pre- 
vail among the faculty, and they have without exception, we believe, 
performed their daily duties promptly and efficiently. Our residences 
are generally so far from the universit}^ that we have comparatively 
few opportunities of seeing the methods of their work in the school 
room. We have, liowever, improved every occasion of our meeting 
on the business of the university, to visit some one, at least, of the 
professors' rooms, and to witness the modes of recitation, of drill and 
discipline. We have been pleased with the general habits and move- 
ments of the students, as they study in the common halls, and as they 
pass from one room to another. In these rooms and passages they 
have acted with a decent propriety, and shown an accuracy of knowl- 
edge and readiness of expression truly praiseworthy. In almost every 
instance the hehavior of the students has been that of ladies and 
gentlemen. Indeed, not a case of any other conduct has come to our 
knowledge. We are persuaded that tw(^ of the great benefits of the 
institution have been the increase of gentlemanly and ladylike char- 
acter and habits in those who had been so bred at home, and the for- 
mation of even better standards of neatness, order and decorum ; and 
a higher-toned honor in the discharge of every duty, and in the prac- 
tice of every manly virtue and social grace. We had hoped much 
from the university on this score, and Ave are proud to say we are not 
disappointed. We did expect great things. The noble building, 
provided so inuniriC(Mitly for our children, and the rf^putation of .the 

teachers selected, did eiicoura<;-e us, and vve think the realization is 
equal at least to the expectation. 

We advised the faculty to make it their first and most important 
duty to teach their pupils self-control and modest unohtrusive persist- 
ency in what is good. By all means normal students should be self- 
reliant, commanding leaders of the people. But they should not be 
opinionative and censorious. AVe have reason to know that the de- 
liberate opinion of the community has seconded our desire, and also 
that our instructors have made a course of study and exercises which 
may be followed by all with profit, and they have carried these into 
«uch practical effect, as has accomplished as nearly what we desired 
as human means usually come toward reaching their aims. This 
course of study and these exercises are intended to cultivate the whole 
nature, soul, mind and body; and the calisthenics have given a 
healthful tone to many languid bodies, while the singing affords a 
large degree of })leasure. These two important parts of school educa- 
tion are deservedly valued. The experiment of a teacher of drawing 
was tried last year with such good success that we have made it an 
obligatory part of the course. We find many who do not appreciate 
its practical work, and who are not eager to become expert in the art. 
But so fully have the best educators settled on it as a necessary ele- 
ment of a teacher's education, and so widely can it be applied, that 
we have thought it right to do our part to meet the almost universal 
demand for teachers who can give instruction in it. Mrs. Nash has 
been the teacher with such good success, that specimens of our work 
sent to the Philadelphia Exposition have received honorable mention. 

All the departments have been remarked for their prosperity. 
By the quarterly report of the principal made to us and on file, we 
learn that he, in addition to the general supervision, has given his 
time to instructing several classes in the branches of mental philos- 
ophy, logic, moral philosophy, English literature, constitution of the 
United States and of Illinois, school laws and school methods, and he 
has given lectures on pedagogics. Dr. Thomas was, in the spring of 
1875, appointed State Entomologist, and gave up a large share of the 
work allotted to him, retaining only zoology, geology and botany — 
work for which he is eminently fitted, and for which his duties in the 
State helped to prepare him. Professor Gastman, who was excused 
from his department the last year, resigned in July 1875, and John 
Hull, Esq., of Bloomington, and a graduate of the Illinois Normal 
University, was chosen in his place teacher of the higher mathemat- 
ics. He has done his work with intelligence and faithfulness, and is 
deservedly rising in popularity. Pie has instructed classes in algebra, 
geometry, trigonometry, surveying, mensuration and conic sections. 
Professor Jerome in tlie department of language and literature, con- 
tinues to merit the praise of a good teacher and a noble gentleman. 
His classes have been T^atin and Greek grammars and readers, C£esar, 
Sallust, Cicero, Virgil, Tacitus. Xenophon, Herodotus and Homer. 
Professor Parkinson has taught classes in arithmetic, natural philos- 
ophy, chemistry and rhetoric. Professor Brownlee has instructed in 
reading and in elocution, in phonic analysis, in singing and calisthe- 
nics. Professor Foster has taught classes in geogra])hy, algebra, ge- 
ometry, physiology and history, and has had charge of the Meteoro- 
logical Reports. Professor Hillman has taught algebra, arithmetic 

and astronomy. Mis.s Buck lias had tlie classes in English grammar 
and analysis, and in book-keeping. Miss Mason lias had charge of 
the primary department. Owing to a variety of causes it has been 
deemed best to discontinue this after the close of the present term, 
and to make for our students an opportunity of observation and prac- 
tice in teaching in the chisses of the i)reparatory school. 

The Trustees report these matters connected with the success of our 
instructors with great pleasure, and they are not less gratified with 
the reports of directors and citizens of many school districts where 
our students liave taught. With few exceptions such reports have 
been highlv favorable, and they indicate that our universit}^ has be- 
gun to supply a long felt want iu our section of the ftate, and that 
the work of our faculty has been mainly in the right direction. 

Tlie number of students who have been admitted to our school since 
its opening day, July 1, 1874, is (>77, and that of those Avho have taught 
in schools among the people has been 2b4, as ascertained by the prin- 
cipal, only five of whom have graduated. Every one of these grad- 
uates have taught in the public schools of our Htate, though some of 
them are now in other States. It is not the most satisfactory way for 
students to teach before they have linished our full course, but most 
of them lack the means of going through at a single heat, as it were. 
They must therefore earn monev for school expenses during interrup- 
tions of their studies. The position of a teacher ought not to be made 
a mere place in which to gain cash to buy higher advantages. The 
teacher should indeed be educated, but before he enters the school. 
The demand for cheap teachers attracts many to leave the university 
temporarily and do duty in the school room. While this has many 
disadvantages, it has also extenuating circumstances. For these 
scholar-teachers are doing no mean and unimportant work for the 
State. They are doing it for small wages, and will expend all those 
earnings to make themselves better teachers and citizens. Besides, 
b}^ their numbers, they are making our methods common, and inspir- 
ing many others' with the desire for education. Thus they bless the 
public with better schools and the youth of the land with higher as- 
pirations for knowledge, more thorough. discipline and nobler charac- 
ter. We append a list of the students who have attended our school 
at any time during the twenty-two months included in this report, 
six hundred and eighteen (618) in all. 

While these general matters liave been so gratifying to us, we have 
been annoyed and our students distressed almost beyond endurance 
by defective furnaces put into the basement of our building for the 
purpose of heating our rooms. We have no hesitation in pronounc- 
ing these a fraud on the State. The commissioners who made the 
contract and accepted them are ])robably not blamable, as it seems 
to have been impossible for any one but a well practiced expert in 
such matters to have known their cunningly-planned defects of ar- 
Tangemeat and construction, without a long time of trial or an hourly 
examination of the details of the work as it w^as put in. But an ar- 
chitect familiar with such business, ought to have seen at a glance all 
their faults. We cannot, therefore, exculpate the architects, paid avS 
they were to see that no frauds were practiced against the State, who 
recommended these furnaces, and who planned the flues and chim- 
neys of the building ; noi- can we hold tliem guiltless of complicity in 


the iini)Osition of somethinji; W()rse than useh^ss. We liave heen so 
l)Jamed, the teachers and students have heen so discommoded, the 
building has been so discolored by smoke, and we have been compelled 
to submit to such bills of expense for repairs, that we could not feel 
that Ave had discharged our duty to the commonwealth unless W(^ 
should, at some risk of tediousness, ri^port tliis matter in detail. 
Within three months from the time of lighting fires in the furnaces, 
we found them sending into the rooms cold air, accompanied with 
volumes of smoke and dust. A little examination revealed the fact 
that certain " ventilators," as they avo called, made oi' not very thick 
sheet iron, rested at one end with their whole weiglit on the globular 
top of the cast-iron " fire pots." These latter speedily became red hot 
when fires were kindled in them, and, in consequence, scon burned 
holes in the " ventilators," making thus a passage for the smoke, by 
the shortest route and with the strongest Tiraught into the air cham- 
bers, and thence into our rooms. Nothing but a deliberate purpose to 
make these l)urn out in the quickest time, can to our minds account 
for such a construction. When we attem])ted to open these air cham- 
bers to raise these ventilators and secure them above the red hot iron 
— a matter which would have been easy at first — we found the roofs of 
the air chambers so built that not a " ventilator" or "fire pot" could 
be touched for repairs or removal without bringing down that roof 
upon the furnaces. Then the iron castings of the fire pots were them- 
selves very defective, and long before the first winter was over they 
had warped, cracked and burst. We were thus compelled to have new 
castings made. These things did not fully reveal themselves so de- 
cidedly until after the meeting of the last Legislature and very near 
its adjournment. Consequently we have been obliged to hobble along 
in this discouraging way and to suffer as we have done. We earnestly 
recommend the careful consideration of a reform in our whole manner 
of warming our building. It should not be longer required that we 
endure such discomforts and be subject to such alarming bills of ex- 
pense. The appropriation made by the late Legislature, of course, 
gave us no means for such contingences, and we have been compelled 
to resort to the funds received from tuition and incidental fees to meet 
these charges, and we may even have to report a deficiency. We may 
be permitted to suggest, that in our opinion, the only proper and 
philosophical mode of heating a building as large as ours is by steam 
and open grates in the large rooms ; and we recommend an examin- 
ation into this matter, to ascertain if it would not be cheaper and 
more conducive to health to introduc(^, as spedil}^ as possible, some 
form of steam-heating apparatus. 

The late General Assembly appropriated $1,250 for fencing, and 
$1,000 for grading the grounds. The money has been expended and 
report made thereof. It is proper to say that by the aid of some con- 
tributions, made by citizens of Carbondale, the sum for the fence was 
made sufficient to JDuild a veiy good paling fence on two sides of our 
grounds and a fair plank fence on the other two The campus is 
therefore creditably inclosed and is in a condition to be further im- 
proved. This job was done by William Hadley, who, we believe, did 
his part of an honest contract without regard to the amount of cash 
appropriated ; and he deserves much cre(]it for t\\c. work. But tln^ 


appropriation for grading was not enough to do half the amount of 
work really needed, and consequently only a part was done, rendering 
it necessary for another and a larger ai)propriation to finish the im- 
provement. This contract was let to V. Holiday, who, hy an unibr- 
tunate illness of his head workman, was misled in his calculation and 
actually removed almost two thousand more cubic yards of earth than 
the contract called for, and of course more than the ai)propriation 
would pay. As the contract limited the Avork to thi-ee thousand cubic 
yards we had no remedy for this unfortunate miscalculation. We still 
need at least S2,500 for this w^ork, and as soon as it can be done the 
faculty and students will proceed v/ith the begun task of planting 
trees and shrubs to ornament the grounds. In the last spring about 
five hundred trees and shrubs were planted on parts of the ground 
fully graded, and they have flourished finely. All are Avaiting pa- 
tiently to make further progress in this direction, as soon as the Leg- 
islature will provide means to grade the grounds. And this is really 
not a small matter. Fine lawns with shrubs and trees upon them 
will not be simply ornamental and beautiful to look upon; they will 
educate the minds as well as the hearts of all who see them, to a love 
of refinement and restful content with the place in which the woi'k of 
education is carried on. The cost to the State is comparatively small 
and no expense ought to be spared which may be necessary ooturn the 
desert of mud or dust, of w^eeds and briars, into a w^ell ordered garden 
or meadow. 

It has often been said that it was a greatly unfortunate choice 
of grounds, which located the university on a naked lot out of 
the village ; and which placed the foundation of the building so that 
earth must be removed before the water could flow off from it. But 
whatever may be our individual opinions of the wisdom of these 
measures, they had become accomplished facts before we were ap- 
I)ointed to take in charge the interests of the university. When we 
were appointed to our places we found the university located where it 
noAv. stands, and all the refuse of the newly finished building lay 
around it. There were banks of earth on all sides of it, rising above 
its water tables and all as wet and sticky as Southern Illinois clay 
can be made by abundance of water. The building cannot be re- 
moved, and at a small cost the present location can be made delight- 
ful, and in a few years, when perhaps all the miscalculation in the 
matter is forgotten, it may come to be a source of rejoicing that this 
site was selected, and the spot, then full of beauty, will be the pride 
of the city and a glory to the State. Even if an error of judgment, 
or worse was committed, is it not too late to attempt a remedy ? 
Would not wisdom dictate an endeavor to render the present grounds 
delightful instead of disgusting, and thus snatch an advantage 
from former mistakes? We commend this subject to your candid 

The sums we ask for the annual expenses of the next two years are 
herewith submitted. And let us say Ave have not foUoAved a practice 
too common, of asking more than Ave need in order to obtain credit for 
economy on the part of the Legislature in cutting doAvn the sum de- 
sired. We have estimated the loAvest dime Avith Avhich Ave can carrv 



•on a school creditable to the State, and profitable to the children of itc5 ' 
people. These are the figures, viz. : 

Salaries $16,4(X) 

Fuel and repairs 1,500 

Tiibrary, etc 750 

Total, annually $lcS,a5() 

For grading and trees 2,500 

We also send copies of the annual reports of the ])rincix)al, received 
by us respectively, June 17, 1875, and June 15, 1876. We improve 
tliis occasion to say that we have called or held, since our last report, 
meetings of the Board of Trustees, as follows, viz. : 

December :*>, 1874 ; March 18, 1875 ; April 28, 1875 ; June 15, 1875 
August 12, 1875; March 28, 1876 (at which no quorum appeared); 
June 14, 1876 (with no quorum) ; June 29, 1876, and October 25, 1876- 

We herewith transmit the accounts of John G. Campbell, Treasurer, 
and of Professor C. W. Jerome, Registrar, showing the receipts and 
•flisbursements of funds belonging to the institution. 

In conclusion, we desire to express to vour Excellency, our most 
<3ordial thanks for the warm and intelligent interest you have mani- 
fested in the affairs of our university. Your words of advice have 
assisted us in our task, and your presence many times at a personal 
sacrifice, has been to us even more than encouragement. We trust 
tlie university so fostered by your care, will be a blessing to the State. 

We remain, sir, your Fxcellencv's most obedient servants, 

' THOS. S. PiTDGWAY, President. 

James Roharts, Secrefarj/. 



FiKsT Year — From July 1, 1874, to June 15, 1875. 

Normal o67 

Preparatory 210 



Total 666. 

8e('ond Year — From August 8, 1875, to June 17, 1876. 

Normal 44 (> 

Preparatory 1 85 

Model ; 76 

Total 707 

Different students, 403— By terms. 

Third Year — First Term — September 8, 1876, to November 30, 1876. 

Normal 127 

Preparatory 44 

Model : 17 

Total 188 

Different students, 388 — By terms. 


Principal '. $3,500 

Professor Natural History 600 

Languages *! 1,800 

Mathematics 1,800 

Arithmetic 1,500 

Natural Philosophy 1,500 

Elocution 1 ,500 

History 1,507 

(Irammar 800 

Primary 800 

Drawing 600 

Janitor... 600 


IvEPOUT — Of moneys irceioecJ, and expenditures ordered, by the Trustees oj 
Southern Jllmois Normal (■niversity, from Deeemher i, 187 4^ to Septemher 
SO, 1876. 


$188 83 

f211 83 

8,722 82 

19,350 00 

3,900 00 

6,109 09 

" •' " Registrar's hands 

23 00 

' " Jiilyl, 1876 

" September 30, 1876 

Receipts of Tuition and fees 


$112 50 

517 50 

284 70 

28,067 10 

1,510 89 

2,250 00 

1,851 86 

517 00 

1,270 68 

154 75 

1,600 00 

.f;y<,-^93 74 


' ■ printing 


'' grading and fencing 

' ' furnishings .... . ■ 


library and apparatus 


$38,136 90 

$156 78 

Due on salaries for which no orders are out 

375 00 

All the above accounts are itemized in the reports of tlie Principal, and in that of the Treasurer. 


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Report of Registrar — first special sessicn, Jvly^ 1874 — beginning November 

SO, 187 J;. 

Balance on hand November 30, 1874 

$1 00 

1 00 





5 00 

1 05 

1 25 







$14 68 


January 15 


Contra Or. 
To postage . 


1 punch for same . . ... 

February 12 

2 " " 

March 2 

2 bottles red ink . ... 


Postage (money orders) 

" 18 

1 ream legal cap ... . . 

" 18 

3 boxes paper fasteners 

April 15 

4 " '* " 


1 can for ink 

May ,.11 

June 10 

1 " " .. 

1 box crayons (steatile) 


2 " " (chalk) 


1 " " •' 

April 25 

3 tin cups (large) 

May 29 

6 '' '* 

September... .24 

November.. ..14 

14 .50 

Balance on hand . .. . 


Respectfully submitted, 

C. W. JEROME, Registrar. 

Report of Registrar, including all moneys received from December 1, 1874, to 

September 30, 1875. 

December.... 1 

Balance on hand from last report 

$.510 00 
30 00 

113 75 

36 00 

48 00 

29 00 

707 00 

1.50 00 

90 00 

60 00 

43 20 

52 34 

475 00 

255 00 

180 00 

100 00 

$23 00 

Winter term. . 

Amount received from tuition and incidentals 

726 OO 

•' •' •' other sources. . 

17 75 

Spring term ... 

" " " tuition and incidentals 

1,049 00 

'' ■' '' other sources 

1 20 


" tuition and incidentals to Sept. 30. . 
'' '' '' other sources 

1,077 00 

December ...12 



By Treasurer's receipt 

$2,894 29 


January 8 

( < < 1 


i i < < 


( i 1 ( 

February . . 20 

<i < < 

March 25 

1 ( 1 ( 


< < .4 

" 31 

1 < 1 ( 

April 19 

a <i 

May 20 

I* i< 

September... 3 


< < a 


< < < < 




$2,879 29 

Balance on hand, September 30, 1875 

$15 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. W. JEROME, Registrar. 


Ref'Ort of Registrar , including all money>< received from October 1st, 1875, to 

September SOth, 1676. 


$79 00 

95 00 
497 00 
183 00 

99 00 

74 00 

103 10 

90 00 

5 00 

469 00 

228 50 

121 00 

155 00 

96 00 
49 10 

551 00 
147 00 
79 00 

$15 00 

November ...19 
' ' 30 

Amount received 

from tuition and incidentals to Dec. G... 
'' other sources 

151 00 
20 50 

Winter Term . 

'' tuition and incidentals 

1,048 00 

Spring ' ' .. 

" other sources 

3 10 
1,115 00 

' ' othei' sources 

3 60 

Fall " .. 

' ' tuition and incidentals to Sept. ,m. 

777 00 



$3,133 20 

r treasurer's vecx 

ipt, October 18, 1875 

December 8, 1875 . . 

" 13, " 

14, " 

17, " 

< ( 29 ' ' 

.Fanuarv 6 ' ' 

February 7, '' 

March 6, " 

" 28, " 

" 31, " 

April 5, " 

Mav '^9 " ... 

September 13,' ' 



S3, 121 20 

Septeftiber 30, 1876 


ilance on hand, 

$12 00 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. W. JEROME, Registrar. 


JrxE Kith, 1876. 

The Principal of the Southern Illinois Normal University has the 
pleasure to offer to the Trustees and to the public in general his first 
annual re2:)ort. It is a great satisfaction to know that the people of 
this section have highly appreciated the benevolence of the State 
which established this university, and have shown this opinion by 
sending many of their children to enjoy the advantages so generousl}^ 
provided. The numbers in attendance since the first special session 
in July, 1874, have exceeded the large calculations made by friends 
of the university. As a general rule institutions of learning do not 
very rapidly attain the power of large numbers. They grow slowly, 
and with many fluctuations ; and onl}^ alter considerable years of com- 
parative uncertainty do the}^ appear to be established in the confi- 
dence of the community. While our enterprise has had some lukewarm 
friends, a few opponents, and, perhaps, some enemies, it has had so 
many warm, earnest and enthusiastic supporters, and has seemed so 
exactly to meet the wants of this part of the State, that it has thus 
far moved rapidly forward on a tide of cheering success. 

It is not always fortunate for an institution of learning to be crowded 
with students, more especially in its beginning. These may be ill 
prepared, lacking moral habits and scholarly enthusiasm. Then the 
larger the numbers the worse it will be for the school. But where 
nearly every student is manly or womanly, or even child-like, br^ive, 
truthful, serious and earnest, the more the better, till the full capacity 
of the buildings is reached, and the teachers are tasked to the utmost 
of their time and strength. These members are an inspiration and a 

The building would accommodate more pupils, and we have seats 
for more in the higher department. But in the model or primary 
school, owing to a lack of furniture, we have been compelled to be 
crowded, and to refuse many applications. The several rooms of the 
preparatory school have been so full as to be almost incommoded. 
We should have at least two more rooms furnished for studv, but our 


Legislators, in their desire for economy, have left us no choice in this 
matter. We are to go on the next two years with no means to accom- 
modate more of this class of worthy young people who may greatly de- 
sire an education, and whose time for acquiring it will have passed 
away before we are prepared to receive them. This will be, as seems 
to us, a great loss both to the youth and to the State. 

The teachers have been compelled to have the charge of six, and 
even seven classes each, and they have labored with great zeal and 
fidelity, and hence been rewarded with the consciousness that they 
have been honestly endeavoring to do thorough work. For the most 
part they have received the grateful respect of all, and certainly they 
have made their several departments highly successful, and they point 
with pride to the record of the students, both in their daily recitations 
and in their several monthly examinations, written and oral. A bet- 
ter showing has rarely been made, and we congratulate ourselves on 
having had so many pupils who have shown themselves honest, ear- 
nest, and ambitious to learn and make noble characters by a faithful 
performance of all duty. The families from which they come have 
been honored by what they have done and the localities to which 
they shall go for future duty will be fortunate. 

The numbers during the year have been as follows, viz.: 

Special session 51 

First regular session 147 

Second regular session 183 

Third regular session 283 

Total 663 

The number of individual students has been 403 

And one hundred and seventy-two persons have received gratuitious 
tuition, and have pledged themselves to teach in the schools of the 
State, provided situations can be obtained with reasonable effort. None 
of these have yet completed the course of study prescribed for gradua- 
tions, though many of them have taught in the district schools for 
several years previously to coming to us, and some for a single term 

The several departments have been well instructed in every case, 
and mention of any one of them would seem to imply either higher 
efficiency in it or some degree of inferiority in others. Each teacher 
has cordially and promptly co-operated with the President in all re- 
spects, and each has my hearty thanks. Their labors have made mine 
not only lighter and pleasanter, but much more profitable to the 
school ; while the careful obedience of the students has rendered the 
duty of all the officers singularly delightful, and far more valuable to 
the State than it could have been had the pupils been vicious, idle, 
dilatory. Only one thing mars the completeness of this commenda- 
tion. The boys — in some cases young men — have compelled the jani- 
tor to do extra work in cleaning buildings. From onh^ a few of the 
students, and an occasional visitor, has there been a mouthful of to- 
bacco juice or saliva ejected on the floors, though some have for a time 
persisted in this sort of indignity to propriety. In other points about 
the university, in the rooms, on the black boards, with x)erhaps only 


a single exception, we have reason to commend and have to say that 
the general neatness and care of furniture could hardly have been 

The department of natural history has made some progress in gath- 
ering specimens. Prof. Parkinson has done most of the work in this 
line, and from various sources, by his own gun, by donations, by pur- 
chase, he has made a fair beginning of a museum. Birds, quadrupeds, 
and reptiles have been collected to the number of a hundred or more. 
Dr. Thomas has received, by favor of Prof. S. A. Forbes, Curator of the 
Illinois Normal University, many valuable specimens of birds, shells^ 
etc., from the Smithsonian Institution, specimens of insects and the 
publications of the institution, from the War Department's Exploring 
Expedition ; a large collection of insects from the U. S. Northern Boun- 
dary Surve}^ ; specimens of natural history, from Prof. Jerome, various 
specimens preserved in alcohol, all of which make an admiraljle be- 
ginning for the first year, and are all we could have taken care of 
while we have no shelves or cases properly arranged for them. 

The botanical cabinet has not been begun. The library consists of 
works of reference and Congressional documents, and has just been 
put in its place on shelves. We do most seriously need more books, 
and the appropriation made by the Legislature, to take effect in July^ 
will enable us to do something toward meeting the wants of the uni- 

The aim in our work for this first year has been to lay the foundation 
of a broad culture, yet to make a specific culture the definite object in 
every department and branch of study. We have sought to accustom 
our pupils to self-control, to a thoughtful regard for the comfort and 
rights of others, and to a reverent obedience to law, as embodied in the 
general usages and customs of society and business, and we are proud 
to say they have not disappointed us. They have been ladies and gen- 
tlemen in the true sense of the word. Our care has been devoted par- 
ticulary to the elementary branches, and to discipline in knowledge, 
science, ait, habit, health, and exercise. Every student has practised 
the graceful and inspiriting system of light, free gymnastics or calis- 
thenics, has been drilled in spelling, in writing, in vocal music, and 
drawing. While we are dissatisfied with the prevalent notion that 
these things are of less importance than book-learning, we are pleased 
to know that their value has been recognized, and we shall bestow 
more thought and labor on them in the future. They will hereafter 
be imperative requirements of all. We are certain that health has 
been preserved by the calisthenics, and grace of carriage acquired. 
We have, however, no adequate provision for instruction in these 
useful things. The several teachers have added to their other duties 
the work of the spelling. The Principal has taken the drawing into 
his own hand ; Mr. Brownlee the singing and calisthenics, and Mr. 
Hillman the writing, and while these have been profitably done^ t.hey 
could have been better done by one who could have given his whole 
lime and attention to ihem. This ought to be made a special depart- 
ment, supervised by a professor employed for it. 

The work of grading the grounds have been provided for in part br 
the Legislature, and has proceeded nearly as far as the money appro- 
piated will carry it. While the Principal is grateful for the sum 


|2;ranted, he cannot withliokl the statement that, after a careful exam- 
ination and estimate, he asked for this purpose twenty-five hundred 
dollars. Two committees of the Legislature, one from the Senate and 
one from the House, visited the institution during the winter, and 
both reported this sum was, if anything, too small, and recommended 
its appropriation. But men in that body who had never seen the in- 
stitution and its grounds, insisted that this sum was more than a State 
such as ours could afford, and granted us the sum of one thousand dol- 
lars. With this sum we shall accomplish something to beautify the 
grounds, and put them in better order of drainage and surface. But 
it is probable that for the whole future of the university tlie place 
Avill be deformed by this attempt at economy, or else more rrioney will 
be voted hereafter than could have finished the whole at once. The 
same may be said of the fence. Not less than two thousand dollars 
were needed to make a good enclosure; twelve hundred and fifty dol- 
lars are given, and while the fence will enclose the lot, it will not 
adorn it as it ought to have done. It is a great pity that the people 
of this end of the State do not demand for themselves, as they and 
their children need and are worthy to enjoy, privileges of education 
equal to those of any State in the Union, or at least to those which 
the northern section of the State enjoy. What would be the cost ? 
We need in order to do the work for the young of this locality a sum 
of say thirty thousand a year. We are three million people nearly, 
that is one cent for each inhabitant, or two cents for both Normals. 
Put ours wholly on the population of Southern Illinois, in which we 
have a million people, and it is only three cents each, or fifteen cents 
to a family of five persons. What a petty cost ? 

It has seemed proper to make this statement, not in condemnation 
of the Legislature, which undoubtedly endeavored to do its duty to 
the people, but in extenuation of any blame which somemight attach 
to our asking so much money, and of our failure to secure what we 
need and what we expected we would readily gain. 

Our work is not for ourselves. It is for the people of the State, for 
their schools and children. We are only interested to have it well 
<Ione, and we are willing to have others do it if we are not found to be 
the best men. And we prefer to not remain if we are incompetent. But 
we are distressed when a false economy restricts us. It is to the in- 
terest of the State to have w^ork of education well done, and for every 

With these remarks, we close by asking all our patrons to send ua 
rscholars, and to give us sympathv and encouragement. 




C'arbond.^le, III., June 14th, 1876. 

The Principal of the Southern Illinois xTormal University reckons 
himself honored by the liberal patronage given to the school during 
its second year. Hearty thanks are due to the people who have sent 
their children and wards to our care, and even more credit should be 
cheerfully accorded to the young men and women who have earned 
the means to instruct themselves, and who have committed them- 
selves to our guidance. The several teachers are not less deserving of 
praise for the earnest support they have given to all our labors, and 
for the ability and faithfulness with which they have discharged their 
individual duties. But above all, devout thankfulness should be ren- 
dered to the Giver of all Mercy for His blessing, without which no en- 
terprise can command respect, and no labor can win success. 

The year has been marked with two difficulties, great stringency in 
financial affairs, and wide-spread sickness during the fall and winter. 
But notwithstanding these, the comparative numbers of advanced 
students, and their attainments, have increased. Last year, in all the 
departments, there were as follows, viz.: 

Normal 135 

Normal preparatorv 20T 

Model .' 61 

Total 40; 

For this year they have been as follows, viz.: 

Normal 12 

Normal preparatory 208 



Total 368. 

This decrease in number, as will be seen, is principally in the model 
school and special session. There are two reasons for this diminished 
numbers in the model, neither discreditable to us, and the second, very 


gratifying and liopeful for the city of Carbondale. The fee for tuition 
in our school has been raised, and the people of the city have such an 
increased confidence in their own iniblic schools, and have employed 
such teachers as to make it desirable to send their children to them. 
It should also be said that while the decrease has been chiefly in the 
primary department, in times like these young men dependent on 
their own resources are the ones who have been kept away from the 
school. But notwithstanding this less numbers of names enrolled, we 
have actually counted a larger number of terms' work than last year. 
The comparison b}^ terms is very satisfactory. Last year our term ag- 
gregates were : Special session, 54; first term, 147 ; second term, 183; 
third term, 283 — total, 664. The present year our enrollment has been : 
Special session, 27 ; first term, 226; second term, 204 ; third term, 253 
— tptal, 709. An increase of 43. This result shows that last year our 
students remained wath lis on the average only 1,561 terms, while this 
year they remain 1,996 — a gain of nearly a half term on a student in a 
single year ; and here again the model room has been most irregular — 
a fact easily accounted for by the long walk and bad weather of the 

The apprcpriation by the State Legislature for the fencing was suf- 
ficient to build a very good paling fence on two sides, and a plain 
plank fence on the other two. But that for the grading of the ground 
was altogether insufficient, and the campus therefore remains an un- 
sightly place, quite an offense to the taste. A portion of it has been 
graded, and the teachers and students have, at considerable private 
expense, planted a part of it with trees and shrubs for future orna- 
ment. It is the hope that this ground may yet be graded and made 
to produce every tree which will grow in this soil and climate. It 
will then be a means of educating the students in some practical 
knowledge of botany and tree culture. A very small annual appro- 
priation woulcf not only create a large amount of beauty, but might 
awaken an enthusiasm among the people of this section of the State 
for unexpensive experiments in tree culture, and diffuse a spirit which 
might be profitable in many directions. 

The appropriation for library and apparatus has all been expended 
— divided nearly equally between the two objects for w^hich it was de- 
signed, and it affords a good working laboratory for practical analysis 
in chemistry and instruction in physics. In connection with these 
objects, we have devoted some attention to a museum of natural his- 
tory, and have procured specimens of birds, beasts, and insects, which 
make a creditable beginning for work in this department of science. 
These departments are under the charge of Profs. Thomas and Parkin- 
son, who instruct their pupils in the actual work of preserving speci- 
mens, in dissecting animals, and in classifying and arranging cabinets. 
These parts of our work have been eminently successful, and we look 
to see our students spread abroad accurate methods of observation and 
much interest in these matters. This section of the State is, perhaps, 
as fine a field as is found in the nation for the study of the habits of 
birds, their migrations, changes of plumage and times of breeding. 
Our students, after the training they receive at our hands, will, it is 
believed, communicate an enthusiasm in this and kindred branches 
of Natural History and Biology which shall prove invaluable to the 


A better opportunity may not occur to reiterate a thought often 
touched in our exhortations to students. To secure the greatest profit 
of a course of study, and to reap the highest advantages of discipline, 
the time devoted to these purposes, should be, so far as possible, con- 
tinuous — a long period of diligent and uninterrupted application till 
habits of rapid, energetic work and patient self-control are formed 
and made into the substance of soul itself. No growth anywhere is 
made without quiet. The tree constantly beaten b}^ mountain winds 
is a drawf : but in the stillness of the deep valley the giant sequoias 
climb five hundred feet toward the top of the cliff'. Great strength, 
indeed, can be produced only by active strain on the energies. The 
growth is chiefliy in rest; and a school life seeks to withdraw, for a time, 
the student into a place of calm and peaceful seclusion, where he may 
give his mind an opportunity to grow and acquire furniture for the 
future strains and battles of life. Two consecutive terms for this pur- 
pose are worth as much as three separated from each other by consider- 
able intervals. And in this connection it is not improper to say that 
all intcrru2:>tions of the Avork of study for visiting or pleasuring do in- 
jure and break up the work of a good education more than is often 
supposed. The act of study is to form habits, and this end is only at- 
tained when the successive actions by which good habits are begotten 
are blended into a series. To stop study two days, or even a half day, 
in a week, breaks the chain of sympathy, disjoints the order, and 
compels to repeat, till the line which should have been homogeneous 
becomes in effect broken into strange materials and weak. It is like 
crystalizing the iron in a wire, which unfits it for strain and makes 
it often inferior in strength to a cable of hemp. 

We ask those who have the responsible care of scholars sent to us to 
give no occasion by unnecessary absences for complaint on this score. 
Let those sent to school here, come prepared to remain till they have 
finished the short courses of study we have set down in our catalogue ; 
and seek to impress upon their minds that the special order we have 
here prescribed is the best which, after trial, we have been able to 
devise. And to students we say, by all means, begin with the lower 
and lay a good foundation for ever}^ thing thereafter. We will give cer- 
tificates for each year's work done in either of the departments, giving 
none till the lower has been done with us or satisfactorily accounted 
for. Our course is so arranged that the Preparatory Normal well fin- 
ished will be fully equivalent to the requirements of a First Grade 
Certificate ; then one can begin the Normal work proper and go on to 
become a master indeed. 

If we rightly understand the purposes of the Legislature in establish- 
ing this school in its present locality, it intended to give the people in 
securing for their public schools a class of teachers who shall instruct 
their children by the best methods in all known sciences, and inspire 
in them the will to learn all new knowledge, and to follow all honorable 
actions in virtue and nobleness. To prepare our pupils for this work, 
we have sought three things : to impart accurate information — first, 
in all the common branches of English learning, and afterwards in 
practical and advanced science; to habituate those who are be teach- 
ers to self-government and readiness in thought and action, to careful 
consideration of the wants of others, and to a cheerful obedience to all 
law ; and finally, to give them a mastery of the methods of teaching — 


iirst, by Avitnessing oar examples in the daily recitation, and then by 
Treading and hearing the best phmsof school work discussed in lectures 
and practiced in school duties. 

We have been compelled to own that our progress in these last 
points have not equalled our hopes. Many things might be said here 
in extenuation of any blame which the public might lay to our 
charge. Two things shall be named : One, pupils come to us to learn 
the higher branches as they call them, without having a foundation 
of the elemental ones ; and they have in their minds also a notion 
that about one-third of a year is sufficent to make them, if not highly 
accomplished teachers, at least very respectable incumbents of the 
school room chair and creditable bearers of official dignity. Not only 
do these notions in the minds of those who come to us, work injury 
to our labors, but similar ideas in the minds of the people, do us even 
greater injustice. It is bad that a young man or 3>oung woman who 
cannot spell the commonest words of the language, who cannot speak 
two simple sentences without errors in pronunciation and in gram- 
mar, should imagine himself fit to teach our schools ; but if the people 
become satisfied wdth him and are willing to accept one who cannot 
explain the reasons for the common operations in arithmetic, or tell 
the names of the several United States and their capitals and cities 
and rivers, or, worse still, who cannot write these names without fifty 
errors, the evil becomes 'far Avorse, for then the popular demand does 
not expect anything like excellence or progress. We do not state 
this to complain, or to find fault, but to prompt the thought of a 
remedy and a determination to apply one. We think the standard 
of education and of aspiration is as high among the youth who come 
to us, as in most other sections of our land; and the appreciation, if 
not the demand, for excellent teachers is certainly as high as any 
where we have known. All this, however, Avill avail little, unless the 
candidates for the office and emoluments, of teacher, and also the peo- 
ple who employ them fix their minds unalterably, and enthusiastically 
insist on resolute efforts to attain the highest excellence. Students 
must from the beginning be better prepared and teachers must do 
this preparation at the demand and under the stimulus of the public 
sentiment, uttered in such a manner that no one can mistake its 
meaning, and so that none will dare resist its reasonable requirements. 
There must be a more thorough early training in our common schools. 

The definite professional work of a Normal school has therefore as 
yet occupied our attention only incidentally. It is not in our case 
like professional schools for lawyers, clergymen, physicians, chemists, 
or engineers. If either the orthography of such men, or their grammar, 
or even their elementary arithmetic — or often all of these — is defective, 
the men are in some degree rendered ridiculous thereby, but their 
whole usefulness is not therefore destroyed. A man may become an 
eminently successful general and an energetic and honored president 
of the United States and be so ignorant of common astronomical 
geography as to believe that the earth is flat and cannot turn daily 
on its axis. But such an one cannot be a good teacher. Neither can 
he do the work of the school room unless he knows the reason why 
you carry one for every ten in addition and in multiplication, and 
why you begin your work at the left hand in division. In our school, 
therefore, we must insist on the thorough mastery of the elements of 


knowledge before the metliodology of teaching and the science of 
pedagogics can be taught with any profit. If now the schools of our 
section of the State will do this elementary work they will aid us in a 
wondrous degree. And when the}^ do not do this, our duty has seemed 
to be to insist on elementary training till it is made a fashion and a 
necessity everywhere. We appeal to County Superintendents to aid 
in this endeavor, and we feel assured that they agree with us, and 
would, if tlieir schools could be supplied with good teachers insist on 
having such and none others. But, alas, men and women well ground- 
ed in all elemental work, are not always in the market, and the law 
is imperative that a school must be kept; and rather than deprive a 
given district of its share of public money for the next year, Superin- 
tendents yield to a seeming necessity, and grantiCertificates to the 
imperfectly educated. We are in appearance doing the same thing. 
Students who have been with us a single term and then only in the 
lower branches, and w^ith so imperfect a knowledge that we cannot 
even pass them to a higher grade, go from us and teach, some of them 
doing better work than the district has before known. While we 
cannot condemn, without qualification, such students, it is not a cotiyse 
to be approved. And we clesire to warn the public that students who 
have been with us are by no means solely on that account to be reck- 
oned worthy to be teachers ; nor will such be a fair representation ot" 
our school work. .We mean to graduate none who are not at least 
fair scholars and who certainly have completed with us or elsewhere 
our course of study, elementary and higher, and who also have an 
earnest character and a high standard of personal honor and scholarly 
ambition. We ask the public to judge us by these and not by those 
who have only been with us too short a time even to have proved 
that they are grounded in the elemental studies. Do not employ uned- 
ucated teachers, and least of all those who have been with us just long 
enough to have grown conceited on account of their relations to our 
school, but not long enough to have been taught how^ little they knew 
before they came, and to have become inspired with the love of study 
and the ambition to learn all things. While we bespeak the good 
will of the public most earnestly and devoutly for our students who 
shall go forth with our certificate of commendation, we do beg that all 
conceitedness and imperfect fitting for the work of the teacher in 
these same students may be as heartily discountenanced. We are 
glad to be held to the strictest accountability for the w^ork we attempt 
to do, and we desire that our pupils be held to the same. But we do 
most earnestly beseech the public to send us those who are fit to begin 
to learn how to teach. 

Let the common branches be well taught at home in your own dis- 
trict schools, and it will save us and you very much money and 
considerable annoyance. We prefer to prepare teachers for the public 
schools rather than educate the scholars of those schools, andw^e think 
we can most profit the people and the State by so doing. Look at this 
point a little with patience. It will cost a young manor young woman 
not less than $125 to $250 per annum to attend our school and pay 
board and travel. If four are sent from one district this amounts to 
$500 or $1,000. Would it not have been cheaper to hire a teacher fully 
competent to teach all the common branches in that district and to 
have had your children learn them fully under your owm guardian- 


ship ? When it comes to Algebra, Geometry, Philosophy, Chemistry, 
Natural History and Sciences we have facilities which no country 
district can easily have, and it will be profitable to send to us even if 
the cost is $500 a year. But for the Spelling, the Reading, the Arith- 
metic, Geography and Grammar, these can be more cheaply taught at 
home, and these branches ought to be taught there as well as we do 
them. What we ask is to nuike the district schools so good that the 
scholars shall delight to learn all common English studies before they 
come here. And if we can aid in making these schools such as they 
ought to be w^e shall be instrumental in saving to the people of South- 
ern Illinois many thousands of dollars a year. Let it be repeated; we 
desire to fit the people and the teachers so that the children of our 
towns may be echicated in all elementary learning at home, and there- 
by save money to the farmers and mechanics, and at the same time 
diminish the risks to the young attendant on absence from home. As 
circumstances now are we are compelled to teach the most elementary 
knowledge and to repeat and reiterate spelling, and writing, and read- 
ing, and even to teach the addition tables, to those who have for years 
attended schools at home. We seem to be compelled to do these 
things, yet we cannot believe they are most profitable for the commu- 
nity, or at least will not be if ' we are obliged to continue them long. 
As temporary expedients, and as leading to something better they are 

Our object is to prepare teachers who shall do all this in every 
school district and thus accomplish what the State designed a Normal 
should do — diffuse better methods of teaching to the country towns. 
We can teach your children, good people of Southren Illinois, we be- 
lieve as well and with less cost than you get the same work done out 
of the State or in any other section of it. The saving to 3'ou even in 
this way will be thousands per annum. But let us send to j^ou teachers 
well prepared for their work and w^e will save you tens of thousands 
and give you a far more equally diffused education. We can teach but 
few of the tens of thousands of children in Southern Illinois in our 
Normal, but w^e can, if they will come prepared, teach all those who 
shall instruct all tne children. Do not, therefore, conclude there is no 
reason for our Normal. The statements above made are the strongest 
arguments we can adduce for its existence and hearty support. It 
will, if sustained by a few thousand dollars annually for ten years, 
make it possible to educate all your children and those of your neigh- 
bors at home in the best manner, and provide intelligent and inspir- 
ing teachers in all parts of the land. We trust that we shall be sup- 
ported by the people and in all these matters be aided in our design 
of making teachers at first thorough in knowledge and finally skillful 
in all school work and duty. 

Nothing is more vital to our national and social life and in no form 
of public expenditure produces so much profit at so small a cost as 
our school w^ork. The average cost per year of educating a scholar in 
our school has been to the State $43 '81, and when it is remembered 
that each one of the more than two hundred taught by us who will 
teach the public schools the next winter, will be actually worth fifty 
per cent, more to the schools than he would have been without the 
instruction he has had ; and that he will in all probability receive 
not a dollar more from the public than would have been paid to per- 


sons certainly less educated, the profit to the State can be seen. These 
two hundred young men and women for live months' teaching will re- 
ceive on the average $45 per month, or in all, $45,000, fifty per cent, 
of which is $22,500, or in a single year more than the whole of what 
the school has cost the State. And these teachers will average nearly 
three years each, which gives the State a clear gain of $67,500 for the 
expenditure of $l(),r21 04 — a ])aying profit if the work should sto]:) 
there. But every one of these young people on the average has a life 
of thirty years of greatly increased value to the commonwealth. So 
that the school promises to return to the public welfare manifold its 
actual cost. And another element in this thought ought not to be 
omitted. The expense of tuition, even when it is largest, is but a 
small i^ortion of the cost of an education. Board, books, clothes, 
travel, and other items. are several times larger than that which the 
State contributes to the payment of the bills of the school. This sum 
the student pays, and in many cases pays it out of his OAvn earnings, 
not from money contributed by his parents or inherited from ances- 
tors. By offering gratuitous instruction, therefore, the State gets a 
sum probably five times as great added by the pupil himself, and all 
this is by solemn act, set apart for the uses and improvements of our 
public schools and brings returns directly to the people, probably 
thrice its own amount within the space of three years, and in the 
course of that student's life of thirt}^ or forty years, more than twenty 
fold. What other investment is so profitable? 

Our course of study embraces everything from the A B C to the 
university. We indeed even want a part of this lower in order to 
make practical application of our instruction in methods of teaching. 
But we want to devote much attention to professional training; and 
we have arranged a post-graduate course, which may be devoted to 
reading and hearing lectures. W^e now have a very good library of 
works on the science of pedagogy and kindred branches, and instruc- 
tion will be given in higher logic, and methodology, and in meta- 
physics, and the science of literature and school laws. Young men 
and young women who have taught awhile and who desire to extend 
their acquaintance with thes« topics will find profitable employment 
in our library and rooms, and can do both themselves and the public 
good service by reading and studying in this way. The principars 
time can be almost wholly devoted to such hereafter. 

Our teachers have done some work at institutes during the year, 
and have delivered lectures in many places with goud results. The 
principal has given daily lectures on many topics to the several de- 
partments : To the normal department one'^day in three on the Eng- 
lish language ; on the order of the development of knowledge ; on the 
methods of study, and on methods of teaching. In the preparatory 
department two days in three on methods of study, importance of 
writing and speaking good English ; on habits of neatness and order ; 
and on. the necessity of character. In all these departments he has 
conducted examinations in spelling, writing, geography and other 
studies. He has also conducted recitations in logic, in mental phi- 
losophyj in English literature, in moral philosophy, in criticism, in 
geography, on the constitution of the United Staies, on the school 
laws of Illinois, in methods and in grammar. 

Professor Jerome has instructed classes in both the Latin and Greek 


liingiuiges, reading C'jefar, Sallust, Virgil, Cicero's orations and Taci- 
tus. He has aLso read Xenophon's anabasis, Cyropa3dia and Homer. 

Professor Hull has been in the university a single year and has 
taught classes as Jollows, viz.: Algebra — elemenLary, advanced ; ge- 
ometry, trigonometry, surveying, and analytic geometry. He has 
made a line success of his work. 

Professor Foster has taught ch-isses in geography, physical geogra- 
y)h3% physiology, history of the United States, ancient' and modern 
history, and has had charge of the observations for the United States 
Signal Service and has acted as librarian. 

Professor Hillman has attended to the arithmetic and to astronomy. 

Professor Parkinson has instructed in natural philosophy, in chem- 
istry, in chemical analysis, and in algebra, and has given lectures on 
chemistry as applied to art and agriculture. 

Professor Brownlee has had charge of the classes in reading and 
elocution, and has taught the music and had charge of the calisthenic 

Miss Buck has taught the classes in grammar and in book-keeping. 

Mrs. Nash has taught the writing classes and drawing with large 

The model department has been controlled by Miss Mason and hns 
been an auxiliary of our teaching of great value. The two difficul- 
ties — the cost and irregular attendance of pupils on account of the 
distance — have made this experiment a doubtful one, and it is not im- 
probable that it may be discontinued. It seems almost a necessity 
with us that something of its kind shall be maintained, but possibly 
all the advantages of it as an experimental school can be gained in 
the other departments of the preparatory. 

This report is submitted to the trustees and to the public with dif- 
fidence but with the thought that as our school is a public institution 
its affairs and methods, its aims and its accomplishments should all 
bo public. The principal trusts that his frank confessions will be re- 
ceived in the spirit in which he makes them, and that his suggestions 
v/ill be candidly and carefully considered and that the public will 
endeavor to work with our professors to elevate the character and in- 
crease the usefulness of all our public schools. 




We subjoin the Course of Study and some other niatters wliich we 
have inserted in our annual catalogues, which may be of interest 
to yourself and to the public. 

The object of the university is to do a part of [the work of education 
undertaken by the State. This is provided for in three departments 
— Model or Primary, Preparatory and Normal. Each of these has a 
specific work, and pursues its appropriate method. The great design 
of the Model School is to be an example of what a school for primary 
scholars should be, and to afford to those preparing themselves to 
teach a place where they may observe the best methods in operation. 
and where, at suitable times, the}^ may practice in the calling of a 
teacher, under the eye of one well instructed and largely experienced 
in the work. 

The purpose of tlie Preparatory Department is, in" part, the [same. 
but it is largely used to give instruction in the common branches, and 
to make up the early deficiencies of such as design to enter the Nor- 
mal classes. 

The Normal Department is to give thorough instruction in the ele- 
mentary and higher portions of the school course of study, and, indeed, 
to fit the student by knowledge and discipline for the practical duty 
of a teacher. It aims to give instruction and opportunities of observa- 
tion and trial, to every one passing through the course, so that he shall 
not be an entire novice in his calling when he enters the school room. 
With this idea in the mind every branch prescribed to be taught in tlie 
common and high schools of our State is carefully studied, from the al- 
phabet to the highest range of philosophy. Accuracy and complete 
thoroughness are points held in mind in every recitation, and drills 
upon the elements are not shunned as though one gained something 
by slurring over them. So much of each branch as we pursue we 
endeavor to impress upon the heart, and incorporate its methods into 
the whole frame of the character. Great attention is, therefore, be- 
stowed on the earlier parts of the course, such as spelling and pro- 
nouncing words, reading and defining, writing, drawing and calisthe- 
nics. The body, needs culture and systematic activity, quite as much 
as the soul, and we begin with making it the servant of the mind^ 
and habituating it to an unhesitating obedience. 


Tlie course of study is planned to give information, to assist in self 
control and discipline, and to promote culture and refinement. It is 
arranged in the order which ages have found most profitable and phi- 
losophiciil. The earlier studies are elementary and the later ones cal- 
culated for stimulating thought when it is growing to maturity and 
needs discipline in the pro])er directions. It is most emphatically 
urged on all students, that they make their arragements to pursue 
•each study in its order, to make thorough work of each, and not to 
overburden the mind, and body too, by a larger number of studies than 
they can carry. 

Few things can be im])rcssed on the mind to more profit than rules 
like the following, and we earnestly request school officers, directors 
and county superintendents to aid us, and the friends of sound and 
symmetrical education to reiterate the maxims: Be thoroughly 
grounded in the elements of all knowledge ; particularly spelling 
English words, pronouncing every letter and syllable properly; read- 
ing with readiness and correctness ; adding and multiplying numbers 
in all possible combinations, with eclectric 'speed and infallible accu- 
racy ; writing a good hand easily read, and done with despatch and 
neatness; di-awing any simple figure, and singing. These things, 
well learned in theory and wrought into practical habits, not only 
open the door to all fields of knowledge and art, but they do go a long 
way toward making the highest attainments in scholarship and the 
sweetest grace in all manners and behavior. This Normal University 
insists on them as both necessary and easily gained. 

Our rules of government are only few in number and very general 
in their application. They are embraced in the Golden Rule : '' Do 
to others as you would they should do to you." It is expected, of 
course, that they include — 

1. Neatness of person and of dress. 

2. Purity of words and of behavior. 

3. Cleanliness of desks, books and rooms. 

4. Genteel bearing to teachers and fellow students. 

5. Punctuality every day and promptness in every duty, not to the 
minute only, but to the second. 

(k Respect for all the rights of others in all things. 
7. Earnest devotion to work. 
<S. Quietness in all movements, 

1). By all means be in school on the first day and remain till the 
last of every term. 

10. Obedience to the laws of love and duty. 

If the spirit of these things can be infused into the soul and wrought 
into the habits, each student will for himself grow in goodness and 
truth, and for the State will be a power and a blessing. 


Tlie course of study has been arranged with two purposes in view 
—-first, to give a strictly normal course of training to fit teachers for 
the public schools, and second, to give examples of methods of teach- 


ing. It therefore goes over the whole curriculum of school studies, 
from the alphabet to nearl}^ the completion of a collegiate education, 
and gives especial attention to those branches which require the use 
of the observing and perceptive faculties, without neglecting those 
which demand the use of the imagination and reason. Practical at- 
tention is devoted to ph^^sics, chemistr\% natural history, surveying, 
and language, and the student is not only taught to know but to do 
the work of the branches which he pursues. He is also required to 
give instruction in all that he learns, so that when he begins his life- 
work, either of teaching or laboring in a secular employment, he may 
not be wholly inexperienced in the very beginning of his career. 

The course of instruction also embraces lectures by the principal 
on the history and science of pedagogy, and on the methods both of 
learning and teaching. As the university is only in the second year 
of its W'Ork, it cannot point to any very striking results. 



The primary English studies and object lessons, counting, drawing,. 
singing, local geography, and spelling. 


Geography of United States, arithmetic through division, reading, 
v/riting, drawing, singing, object Ussons, spelling and defining, and 


Arithmetic to fractions, geography, grammar begun, and element- 
ary natural history, reading, spelling, writing, drawing, calisthenics^ 
and singing. 



First terni" -Arithmetic (fractions), reading, writing, geography^ 
spelling, drawing, vocal music, and calisthenics. 

Second term — Arithmetic (percentage), geography, spelling, writ- 
ing, reading, drawing, vocal music, and calisthenics. 

Third term — Arithmetic (ratio and roots), grammar begun, reading,, 
drawing, writing, spelling, vocal music, and calisthenics. 


First term— Review of arithmetic, grammar. United States history^ 
reading, drawing, writing, and singing. 


Second term — Grammar, history, astronomy, reading, drawing, sing- 
ing, writing, and calisthenics. 

Third term— Grammar, botany, natural history, reading, singing, 
writing, drawing, and calisthenics, 

Tllllil) YEAR. 

First term— Latin begun, elements of algebra, physical geography, 
English grammar review^ed, and general exercises the same as second 

Second term— Latin, elements of algebra, physiology, astronomy, 
natural history, and general exercises continued. 

Third term — Latin, geometry, algebra, English analysis, general 
exercises continued.^' 


The following is the normal course. It embraces Iwo largo and 
thorough courses of study. One includes the classics, with provision 
for elective German and French ; the other omits all the languages 
except the English, and both make an extensive study of the mother 

It substantially embraces a department of Mathematics, of English 
Language and Literature, of Art and Elocution, Music, Drawing and 
Calisthenics, of Physics, of Chemistry and Astronomy, of History, of 
Classical Language, and of theoretical and practical teaching. The 
whole forms what is called the Classical Normal Course, and selected 
studies make up the Scientific Normal Course. 

Either is sufficient for practical purposes, and may prepare a 
teacher for the full work of our public and high schools. 


First Term. — English Language, University Algebra, Latin, Greek 
Drawing, Singing and Calisthenics. 

Second Term. — University Algebra, English, Latin, Greek ; general 
Exercises same. 

Third Term. — Geometry completed, Latin, Greek, History of English 
Language ; same general Exercises. 


First Term. — Trigvmometry and Mensuration, Latin, Greek and 
English Literature. 

Second Term. — Natural Philosophy, Latin, Greek, Physiology. 

Third Term. — Latin, Greek, B )tany, and Surveying and Naviga- 

* N. B. This course thoroughly finished is sufriciont to command a first grade certificate. To 
any student who completes it in the university, we will give a written statement of this fact ; but 
it must be understood this will have no force' or value as a legal qualification for the office of 
teacher. And whenever a student completes any one year's wor^ in its proper order, we will 
cheerfully give him a certificate of that fact. 

, ,^ ^, .THiiiD;i:ii:AK,.. _ 

First Term. — Rhetoric, l^istory,CTr^et,Zoblo.;y, and general Exer- 
cises continued. 

Second Term. — Logic, Greek and Chemistry, Conic Sections. 

Third Term. — English Criticism, History, Geology, and School 


First Term. — Mental Philosophy, English Language, Physical 
Geography and Pedagogics. ■ )^ - - : 

- Second Term. — Ethics, Astronomy, Pedagogics, and Book Keeping. 

Third Term. Constitution of United States, School Laws of Illi- 
nois, Pedagogics, Methods of Teaching and Book Keeping, Reviews of 

General Exercises during the whole course. 

German and French may be substituted in some cases. 

N. B. — Written examinations monthly, and oral at the close of each 


This will embrace a larger course of History,, more of Mathematics, 
Political Economy, Criticism, Field Work in Natural History, Analyt- 
ical Chemistry, and Dissecting and preserving specimens collected. 
It will also include courses of lectures on the above branches, and on 
the History and Science of Education. One year's work of teaching 
in the Model School, for one hour a day, will be required for a Diploma. 
A certificate will be given for each year of study completed in consec- 
utive order in this department. 

N. B. — The following works are recommended for reference, and are 
considered essential to every teacher's library, viz : AVebster's Una- 
bridged Dictionary ; Lippincott's Gazeteer ; Zell's or Chambers' Ency- 
clopedia ; Hailman's History of Pedagogy ; Miss Peabody's Kinder- 
garten; Rosenkranz's Science of Education, by Miss Brackett; Wick 
ersham's Methods ; The Teacher, by Abbott : Oswald's Etymological 
Dictionary; Hinton's Physiology for practical use ; Sheldon's Object 
Lessons; Smith's Free Hand Drawing for Public Schools ; Cleveland's 
English and American Literature ; Smith's Classical Dictionary ; 
Hayden's Dictionary of Dates, and Graham's Synonyms. 


To be entitled to admission in the Normal Department, a lady must 
be sixteen years of age and a gentleman seventeen. They must be of 
cood moral character, and a certificate to. this effect will be required. 
To enjoy the privilege of free tuition, they must sign a certificate 
promising to teach in the schools of Illinois three years, or, at least, 
as long as they have received gratuitous instructions. They are to 
pass an examination either before the county superintendent, or ex- 
aminers, or before the Faculty of the University, such as would entitle 


them to a second grade certificate, and they must agree to obey all 
reasonable requirements as to order, promptness, cleanliness and gen- 

teel behavior 


To those who sign the above-named certificate, tuition is gratuitous, 
but there may be a fee charged for incidentals, at present not exceed- 
ing $3.00 per term of thirteen weeks. Tuition in Normal Depart* 
ment, $10.00; in the Preparatory Department, $8.00; in the Model 
Department, $4.00. 

Board can be had in good families in Carbondah^ at rates varying 
from $3 50 to $5.00 per week, and by renting rooms and self-boarding, 
or bv organizing clubs, the cost, may be largely reduced, perhaps to 
$2.50 per week. Books are sold by the several bookstores at reasonable 


We do most earnestly and affectionately recommcind to all our 
students, and to those who may be in charge of them, or who have 
inliuence over them in any way, by advice or authority, that they fix 
it as a rule never to leave the institution before the end of a term, 
and, if possible, that they complete a full 3^ear. Fragments of an edu- 
cation are indeed of much worth, just as the fragments of a diamond 
are valuable. But how much more profitable are they when united. 
The price of the diamond increases as the square of its weight. Hard 
study for a week, or a day, or even an hour, is worth a vast deal; but 
a full course of several years is largely enhanced in value. Do not be 
absent from the school for a day. The regular calisthenic exercises 
will give you health for consecutive study, and by habitual applica- 
tion you will acquire facility for study, and you will accomplish more 
than you would have believed. 

We certainly shall not grant diplomas to those who are absent often, 
and who do not finish every examination, both written and oral. 
One of the values of a course of study is that it rej^resents years of 
honest, punctual work. 


Carbondale is a city of 2,500 inhabitants, healthful and beautiful, 
with a refined and cultured people. It is easy of access and offers in- 
ducements for board and social advantages beyond most other places. 
It has, perhaps, fewer temptations to idleness and dissipations, and 
combines religious and educational privileges in a degree greater than 
the average of towns and cities. Parents msLj be assured that their 
children will be as safe as in any school away from home; and scholars 
may come here and be certain that economy and industry will be 
respected and assisted by all the surromndings of the locality. The 
Illinois Central, the Carbondale and Grand Tower, and the Carbondale 
and Shawneetown railroads afford ample facilities for convenient access. 



The students have organized two literary societies for purposeri of 
mutual improvement. They are The Zetetic Society and the Socratic 
Society. They meet every Friday evening. These aftbrd one of the 
best means of culture, discipline and instruction in the practical con- 
duct of business. They have commenced the foundation for a library, 
and deserve the oountenanco and patronage of all the students and 
their friends. 

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